This information is to be used for educational purposes only and has been solely based on their historic and traditional uses. This information has not been evaluated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, nor has it gone through studies required before a particular product can be deemed truly beneficial or potentially dangerous. Salve products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.


Alcohol Denatured
Alcohol denat is an ethanol (naturally-derived) that functions as anti-foaming agents, cosmetic astringents, solvents and viscosity decreasing agents. Alcohol denat also functions as an anti-microbial agent.

The primary healing element in comfrey oil is allantoin, a cell proliferant which promotes epithelial cells granulation and formation. In other words, allantoin has the property of multiplying healthy cells and not malignant ones. The allantoin content of comfrey, especially in the root, has resulted in its use in folk medicine for healing wounds, sores, burns, swollen tissue, and broken bones. Allantoin, found in milk of nursing mothers and the fetal allantois, appeared to affect the rate of cell multiplication. When allantoin was applied, wounds and burns seemed to heal faster, due to a possible increase in number of white blood cells. Comfrey has been reported to promote healthy skin because of its mucilage content that moisturizes and soothes. Meanwhile,  allantoin promotes cell regeneration. Read more about Symphytum officinale (comfrey oil).

Aloe barbadensis (Organic Aloe) Juice
Aloe plants, found mainly in sunny climates and known for large amounts of water stored in their leaves, improve hydration of the skin. Aloe is known for its soothing capabilities for all skin types. Chemical analysis has shown the presence of mucopolysaccharides, a long-chain of sugar molecules, commonly found in the human body, especially in mucus and in the fluid that lubricates joints. Aloe is composed of water, the enzymes catalase and cellulose, minerals, calcium, aluminum, iron, zinc, magnesium, sodium, 20 amino acids and carbohydrates. Aloe has numerous soothing  and anti-inflammatory properties, can soothe the skin and aid in healing cuts, grazes, burns and insect bites. In 1500 BC the Egyptian Ebers Papyrus recommended aloe for skin care. The Greeks, Chinese, Roman and Arab herbalist recommended aloe for burns and rashes. In the 1930s a radiologist discovered that aloe is effective in treating radiation burns. True aloe is watery and thin, and requires a preservative to prevent the growth of bacteria.

Aqua (Water)
Water is used in the formulation of virtually every type of cosmetic and personal care product. It can be found in lotions, creams, bath products, cleansing products, deodorants, makeup, moisturizers, oral hygiene products, personal cleanliness products, skin care products, shampoo, hair conditioners, shaving products, and tanning products.

Arnica montana (Organic Arnica) Oil
Made from fresh, certified organic arnica flowers, the extracted oil is infused in certified organic olive and vegetables oils to achieve a high concentration of extraction to be used topically. It is often used to ease external physical trauma, sprains, swelling, bruising, pain and other injuries. It absorbs well and is soothing to the skin. Not for use on broken or abraded skin.

Ascophyllum nodosum (Organic Atlantic Kelp)
Our organic milled Atlantic kelp grows deep in the cold sub-tidal waters of the North Atlantic Sea. It is responsibly harvested, dried and milled following organic standards. Add kelp powder to bath salts, facials, bath teas, and body wraps. It is a yellowish green colored powder with a fish-like, seaweed aroma and flavor. Sea kelp contains chlorophyll, an essential fatty acid that helps detoxify the skin and body and improve the skin’s elasticity. Sea kelp also contains carbohydrates that stimulate the skin's ability to heal and vitamin A, an antioxidant, that normalizes skin cells. Proteins and amino acids are also present, and are the building blocks of cells, and act as skin conditioners.

Ascorbic Acid (vitamin C)
Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) is one of the relatively few topical agents whose effectiveness against wrinkles and fine lines is backed by a fair amount of reliable scientific evidence. Ascorbic acid is a naturally occurring organic compound with antioxidant properties. It is is responsible for collagen production that makes skin firm and smooth.

Ascorbyl Palmitate (vitamin C Ester)
A fat-soluble, highly absorbable form of vitamin C, ascorbyl palmitate, is a free-radical fighting antioxidant in skin care products that promotes healthy skin. Ascorbyl palmitate is a fat-soluble form of ascorbic acid, or vitamin C. Unlike ascorbic acid, which is water-soluble, ascorbyl palmitate is able to be stored in cell membranes until needed by the body. It is used as an antioxidant in foods, pharmaceuticals, skin care and cosmetics, and is also used as a preservative for the natural oils, oleates, fragrances, colors, vitamins and other edible oils and waxes which are used in pharmaceuticals, skin care, cosmetics and foods. Working at the cell membrane, ascorbyl palmitate, has been shown to provide antioxidant action potential comparable or even greater than that of vitamin E. It also helps to regenerate the vitamin E radical on a constant basis.

Aspalathus linearis (Organic Rooibos Tea) Extract
Rooibos tea is recommended for wide range of ailments including skin problems such as eczema, diaper rash and acne because of its soothing effect on the skin when applied topically. Rooibos tea is low in tannins, high in minerals such as calcium and fluoride. The most important aspects of Rooibos are its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. Rooibos is a powerful player in the team of antioxidants this crème brings to your skin. Recently, Japanese scientists discovered that rooibos tea contains a counterpart of the enzyme Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD), which is an antioxidant that attacks the free radicals and limits their damaging effects on the skin.

Azadirachta indica (Neem) Oil
Neem oil used widely in India as an antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antiseptic, antiparasitic agent in toiletries, soap, toothpaste and skin/hair care products. It has traditionally been used to help soothe skin disorders such as eczema, psoriasis, ringworm, scabies, syphilitic sores, chicken pox etc. It has been used to remove lice and control dandruff. In toothpaste in helps relieve swollen and bleeding gums and kills the bacteria that cause gingivitis. Used widely in creams, dental products, hair care products, and in gardens for natural pest control. Can be applied directly to the skin or included within skin care preparations that are designed specifically to soothe problematic skin conditions. Mixed with clay, it makes a great facial for those with acne and other skin problems. Mix it with lotion as a bug repellent. Used in pet soaps to kill and repel fleas.

Beeswax comes from the honeycomb of virgin bees. Bees process honey from the nectar and then convert it into wax. Ten pounds of honey produces one pound of wax. It has a honey like fragrance. It is used as an emulsifier and stiffener.

Beta Carotene (Pro vitamin A)
Also known as pro vitamin A. This is found in plants and many animal tissues and is what causes carrots to have their orange tint, and is also used as a coloring agent in several cosmetics. It is a precursor to vitamin A, and research has suggested that by supplementing the diet with beta-carotene, it may be possible to shield the body's immune system from harmful UVA rays-and reduce the risk of skin cancer. Beta carotene is also known for its ability to fight acne causing bacteria.

Butyrospermun parkii (Shea Butter)
Shea butter is solid and comes from the natural fat obtained from the karite tree grown in west and central Africa. Often referred to as karite butter, shea butter is an emollient that is renowned for its skin softening and moisture retaining ability. It is extremely therapeutic, helping to soothe cracked, aged and damaged skin. Its chemical makeup helps to ease bruising and soreness. Shea butter penetrates the skin and leaves it feeling soft and smooth. The naturally-found vitamin A and E in shea butter, makes it highly compatible with skin. Shea butter offers high unsaponifiables and cinnamic ester content, which provide anti-microbial and moisturizing properties and protection from the UV rays of the sun. Unsaponifiables are a large group of compounds called plant steroids or sterolins. They soften the skin, have superior moisturizing effect on the upper layer of the skin and reduce scars. Shea butter is expeller pressed without use of solvents.

Camellia sinensis (Organic Green Tea) Extract
Green tea is well known for its antioxidant properties, which prevents the degradation of cell membranes by neutralizing the spread of free radicals. Green tea has 20 times the antioxidant properties of Vitamin E and 6 times the antioxidant effectiveness of black tea. Green tea suppresses inflammation and reduces irritation. Scientists at the University Hospitals of Cleveland (UHC) and Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) found that ingredients in green tea decreased the direct effects of sunburn. Did you know, three different teas are produces from the same Camellia sinensis plant? White tea is produced by cultivating and baking dry the silvery-white, young leaves and buds of the Camellia sinensis plant. Green tea is produced by steaming the fresh cut Camellia sinensis, which inactivates the enzymes that would otherwise oxidize the plant material. Black tea is produced by allowing the leaves to oxidize. Of the three teas, black tea contains the least active compounds due to the oxidization process used to create it.

Cananga odorata (Ylang Ylang) Essential Oil
Steam distilled from Madagascar, this essential oil is used throughout the fragrance industry. Ylang ylang is known for its sedative properties, and is one of the most relaxing fragrances to the mind and body. Its intensely sweet spicy, floral scent seduces the senses and relaxes the mind, and helps soothe nervousness, physical exhaustion, and stress. In skin care, ylang ylang balances sebum and promotes hair growth.

Caprylyl Glycol
Caprylyl glycol is an alcohol that is used as a moisturizer and skin-conditioning agent with anti-microbial properties that may be plant-derived or synthetic. Often used as part of a preservative blend with phenoxyethanol and chloroxylenol, two preservatives that meet current global regulations. In the south of France, products use exclusively plant-derived caprylyl glycol. In addition to its anti-bacterial characteristics, caprylyl glycol also contributes to cosmetics as a formulation stabilizer and viscosity regulator. It is frequently found in facial moisturizers, anti-aging treatments, lip gloss, cleansers, foundations, concealers and sunscreens.

Unlike the other versions of carbomer, our carbomer is derived from benzoic acid. A carbomer is any of a series of polymers of acrylic acid used as thickening agents and emulsion stabilizers. Carbomers are used in a variety of skin and hair care products, in teeth and mouth cleaning products, and in pharmaceutical preparations. By themselves, they are fluffy white powders that readily absorb water to form gels or thick solutions that are non-toxic, stable, and resist spoilage.

Cetyl Alcohol
Cetyl alcohol is considered to be a fatty alcohol that is widely used in cosmetics and personal care products, especially in skin lotions and creams to moisturize dry, rough, scaly skin. Your skin becomes dry when water loss occurs; cetyl alcohol helps pull moisture back into your skin, and helps protect your skin by shielding it from irritation, such as wetness. This is the very reason why diaper rash medications use cetyl alcohol in their formulations.

Citric Acid
Citric acid is a vitamin C that is considered to be a very powerful antioxidant that not only stimulates collagen production but also prevents free radicals from damaging the skin. Consequently, citric acid can actually improve the health of skin cells that in turn promotes skin recovery and the ability for the skin to protect itself against a variety of harmful environmental factors.

Citrus aurantifolia (Lime) Essential Oil
Lime oil boasts many therapeutic properties, and contains anti-viral, anti-septic, anti-bacterial, restorative, reparative and tonic benefits just to name a few. It is cooling in nature and is ideal for relieving and cooling fevers and refreshing a tired mind. Its toning effects make it ideal for treating oily and problematic skin conditions. It is said to be helpful for people with arthritis and circulatory problems and is a great circulation booster helping to improve cellulite.

Citrus bergamia (Italian Bergamot) Essential Oil
Bergamot, a member of the citrus family, has been used as a remedy for fever in Italian folk tradition, and has a long history of use in potpourri and perfumes. The powerful antiseptic makes it beneficial for treating wounds, acne and dry skin. Bergamot has also been found to increase the skin's immunity to infections, and helps soothe dry, irritated skin, making it an excellent choice for relieving symptoms of eczema and psoriasis. Its astringent quality helps regulate excessive oiliness of the skin and scalp; and it offers deodorizing action for the body. Bergamot aromatherapy balances the nervous system by relieving anxiety and stress, and lifting melancholy. Bergamot is second only to lavender in its ability to relax brain waves when sniffed.

Cocos nucifera (Organic Virgin Coconut Oil)
Organic, virgin coconut oil is the premium of coconut oils with a fresh coconut odor like you just cracked it open. Virgin coconut oil is cold-pressed, pure, natural and unrefined. It is also one of the safest most effective natural body moisturizers available. Use it for aromatherapy in soap, body/massage oil, and shampoo moisturizer adding sheen and preventing dry hairs, or a nail and cuticle treatment. Virgin coconut oil is a saturated oil, that hardens in temperatures below 75 degrees F. it is extremely stable with an almost indefinite shelf life. It is uniquely rich in lauric fatty acid (>48%). According to scientific research, virgin coconut oil contains up to 50% medium chain fatty acid, which makes this oil appear to have significant anti-microbial, antibacterial and antifungal properties.

Cymbopogon citratus (Indian Lemongrass) Essential Oil
Lemongrass essential oil is known for its invigorating and antiseptic properties. It is often used in products that are intended for problematic and damaged skin, to help calm acne, for oily skin and hair types, helps remedy cellulite and fungal inflammation. Lemongrass is an excellent anti depressant helps relieve stress related disorders. Lemongrass essential oil tones and fortifies the nervous system and can be used in bath for soothing muscular nerves and pain. Lemongrass shares similar properties with citronella and has a great reputation as an insect repellent, pesticide and preservative so it can be also used for keeping the pets free of fleas and ticks.

Daucus carota (Carrot Seed) Essential Oil
Carrot seed oil is rich in beta-carotene, vitamins A & E and pro-vitamin A which help to soothe dry, chapped, and cracked skin. Carrot seed oil helps to balance the moisture in our skin and conditions hair. 

Dead Sea Salt
Gathered from the Dead Sea, this dried sea salt softens the water during cleansing, acts as an abrasive exfoliator and helps draw toxins from the body. It contains 26 minerals, 12 of which can only be found in Israel’s Dead Sea. The minerals and trace elements deep clean and revitalize the body. Its unique mineral composition explains why people travel far and wide to bathe in hot springs, mineral baths and the Dead Sea. The Dead Sea attracts visitors because it is the lowest point on the earth that contains a high percentage of natural minerals. In many countries people with conditions labeled incurable have reduced the symptoms or completely resolved them after being treated with mineral hydrotherapy.

Dentritic Salt
Dentritic salt is fine grain salt that has been crystallized to provide more surface area and irregular surfaces. This is desirable in bath salts because the increased surface area helps retain fragrance and reduce clumping. This natural salt absorbs essential oils and fragrance oils twice as efficiently as other salts used in bath mixes.

Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE)
DMAE is a naturally occurring substance that facilitates the synthesis of a neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is a compound released from the ends of nerve fibers and it is involved in the transmission of nerve impulses. DMAE also may stimulate the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, an important component of cell membranes. Phosphatidylcholine is an essential fatty acid that improves and protects cell membranes damaged by free-radicals and improves blood flow and circulation. DMAE studies have identified that it reduces the accumulation of lipofuscin deposits inside cells, which are cellular pigments consisting of aggregated chunks of molecular waste. It has been demonstrated that DMAE causes some degree of skin and pore tightening.

dl-Panthenol (Pro-Vitamin B5)
Panthenol (Provitamin B5) is a humectant, emollient and moisturizer. In skincare, panthenol has good skin penetration and is well known for its excellent hydrating and moisturizing properties. Some reports show that it helps soothe inflamed skin and sufferers of acne.

Emulsifying Wax
A vegetable-based emulsifying wax from naturally occurring fats and esters, further processed into a convenient pastille flake form. This excellent medium is used to create a bond between water and oil for products that require binding together. It makes a fluid cream, and lotion without the separation, and complements the finished products end texture.

Eucalyptus globulus (Eucalyptus) Essential Oil
Eucalyptus is known now for its use in inhalants and vapor rubs, and as a household disinfectant and cleaner. Eucalyptus oil comes from leaves and young twigs that are steam distilled to produce the essential oil. Eucalyptus oil has been used by Aboriginal ethnic groups for asthma, sinus congestion, bronchitis, coughs, colds, insect bites, headaches, fever, rheumatism, and muscle aches. Also a natural deodorant, eucalyptus is also used in hair care products, to refresh and stimulate the scalp, promote increased blood circulation, stimulate hair growth, helps with dandruff and promotes a healthy scalp. It has a soothing and calming effect on the whole body. Eucalyptus essential oil aromatherapy should not be used in early pregnancy.

Glycine soja (Soybean) Oil
Soybeans have long been cultivated for its protein, oil and lecithin content. Currently, soybean oil is one of the most important oils produced in the United States. Most of the lecithin (phospholipids) used in cosmetics are derived from soybeans. Soybean oil has a very high-unsaturated fatty acid compound, 2% sterolins and 30 IU per ounce of vitamin E. Unsaponifiables are a large group of compounds called plant steroids or sterolins. They soften the skin, have superior moisturizing effect on the upper layer of the skin and reduce scars. The sterolins in soybean oil have been found to diminish age spots.

Hamamelis virginiana (Witch Hazel) Extract
This is a very common ingredient in various cosmetics and is used as a local anesthetic and astringent. It is made from the twigs and leaves of Hamamelis virginiana. Witch hazel can be used on sores, bruises and swelling. For this purpose, witch hazel is often used in a liquid astringent form. It can be applied several times a day to provide soothing relief to injuries. Its antioxidant and astringent properties make it effective against acne. It is gentle and non-drying to the skin, unlike many harsh acne medications found in drug stores. Witch hazel is a good choice to calm itching and swelling after exposure to poison ivy.

Heliantus annuus (Organic Sunflower) Oil
Obtained from the milling of the seeds from the sunflower, sunflower oil is very high in essential fatty acids, as well as both vitamins A and E. Sunflower oil absorbs quickly, helping to moisturize, regenerate and condition the skin. Good for mature, sensitive and dry, damaged skin.

Lavendula hybrid (Lavender) Essential Oil
Lavender essential oil is extracted from flowering tops of the plant, has anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, analgesic, anti fungal, and anti-septic properties. Lavender is believed to stimulate the immune system to ease inflammation. It tones the skin and is useful for acne, oily skin, burns, sunburn, wounds, eczema, psoriasis and insect bites. In hair care, lavender helps balance oily or dry hair and scalp, soothes irritated scalp and stimulates the hair follicles to help foster hair growth. For centuries lavender has been used for its beneficial effect on skin, soothing burns and wounds, stimulating the growth of skin cells, treating eczema and psoriasis. Lavender relieves tension with its soothing, calming and harmonizing effect on the nerves. It is used as an anti-depressant and the high linalool and linalyl acetate in lavender have been demonstrated to have anti-anxiety, stress reducing effects, and is effective for headaches, migraines and insomnia. Its floral and woody fragrance is great for stress relief and general relaxation.

Magnesium Sulfate (Epsom Salt)
Epsom salt is a pure mineral compound (magnesium sulfate) in crystal form that gently exfoliates skin and helps smooth rough patches.

Matricaria chamomilla (Organic Chamomile) Extract
Traditionally, German chamomile is an herb in which the flower head of the plant is used to make medicine. It has antibiotic and anti-inflammatory activity that is exhibited when used topically, and is used in facial steams to reduce puffiness and cleanse the pores of the skin. Herbalists use chamomile to soothe wounds, sunburn, burns, hemorrhoids, mastitis, and leg ulcers and any harmful bacteria that exist.

Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) Essential Oil
Melaleuca alternifolia, commonly know as “Tea Tree Oil,” has been used to help soothe many types of infections, and has long been respected for its antiseptic properties. Australian Aborigines have used the leaves of the melaleuca tree for centuries to soothe cuts, wounds and skin infections. It is also helpful in clearing the skin. Melaleuca acts as an oil-controlling agent with high germicidal value. It has the property to penetrate pus and by mixing with it, the pus liquefies which causes it to slough off, leaving a healthy surface. It has been documented to kill many types of bacteria and fungi on contact, so – just as the Aborigines knew – it is excellent for cuts, wounds, diaper rash, insect bites, ringworm, and burns, and anywhere harmful bacteria might be found.

Mentha arvensis (Organic Menthol)
These carefully crafted crystals are 100% naturally derived from Mentha arvensis (wild mint) essential oil extraction. Menthol crystals come from freezing the base concentrate oil from the mint, and commonly applied to cosmetics, salves and balms, which are created to assist in coughs, congestion, upper respiratory problems, and the flu.

Mentha piperita (Peppermint) Essential Oil
This cooling and refreshing essential oil is used in aromatherapy to stimulate the mind, increase mental agility and to increase focus, while cooling the skin, reducing redness and calming irritation and itchiness. Peppermint aromatherapy helps to ease migraine, headaches, sinus and chest congestion and boosts the digestive system. For hair, applying peppermint oil to the scalp increases blood circulation to the scalp, which may result in increased hair growth.

Mentha spicata (Spearmint) Essential Oil
Skin care products containing spearmint oil are effective to calm skin problems such as pimples and acne. This oil has been very effective to combat these skin eruptions. This essential oil is also regarded to help ease headaches. Further, it has the ability to repel insects.

Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM)
MSM, methylsulfonylmethane, is a naturally occurring nutrient found in plants, meats, dairy products, fruits, and vegetables. MSM is therefore found in the normal human diet. It is an odorless, tasteless, white water soluble, crystalline solid in its purified form. MSM supplies sulfur to the body that allows it to heal itself. It produces muscle relaxation, and has been used with great success in eliminating chronic back pain, muscle pain, repairing cut, scraped, burned and damaged skin. Reports show evidence of MSM eliminating wrinkles, brown spots, skin tumors, and spider veins. MSM is being used for burn victims and repairing scar tissue, and many people report relief from allergies after using MSM. Other reports indicate that MSM will remove parasites from the body, and help the body to detoxify itself. It is anti-inflamatory and anti-microbial and feeds the formation of collagen and elastin while preventing and reducing cross-linking between cells. Cross-linking of cells is the primary cause of wrinkles and scar tissue. MSM is a natural sulfur compound that contributes to healthy skin, hair and nails. It has been used orally and topically to aid skin disorders. When used topically, in the form of a cream or lotion, sulfur is helpful in treating skin disorders including acne, psoriasis, eczema, dermatitis, dandruff, scabies, diaper rash and certain fungal infections.

Niacinamide (vitamin B3)
Also called vitamin B3, niacin, and nicotinic acid. Topical application of niacinamide has been shown to increase ceramide and free fatty acid levels in skin and to prevent skin from losing water content.

Organic Alcohol
The USDA certified organic program only allows USDA certified organic alcohol as a preservative for USDA certified organic skin care products. 

Organic Palm Oil
This organic palm kernel oil is pressed from the fruit kernels of the palm tree. It is most commonly found in handmade soap to increase its lather and hardness. It may also be used in a multitude of other cosmetic and body-care products for its moisturizing properties.

Palm Stearic Acid
Soap softener and toiletry thickener. Naturally derived from palm or soybean oil. Helps to bind and thicken creams. Also used in soap and candles.

Persea americana (Avocado) Oil
This ultra rich oil is a delightful treasure containing high amounts of vitamins A, B1, B2, D, and E. Avocado oil also contains amino acids, sterols, pantothenic acid, lecithin, and other essential fatty acids. Highly prized to those with skin problems such as eczema, psoriasis, and other skin ailments, avocado oil is recommended to those with sensitive, problem, or irritated skin that require vitamin rich oil.

Phenoxyethanol is a chemical compound with a molecular composition that includes carbon, making it an organic chemical compound, glycol ether, which is often used in dermatological products such as skin creams and sunscreen. It is also commonly used in bactericides solutions that are used to kill bacteria without harming other substances. It is a preservative that is primarily used in cosmetics and medications.

Polysorbate 20
This is a non-ionic surfactant that is used to disperse and emulsify oil in water. It is commonly used for oil in water emulsions, such as lotions, conditioners, cream rinses, body mists, and spritzers. Made from lauric acid (from an olive oil source) connected to a sugar (sorbitol) this compound is then ethoxylated (grain based alcohol) to make it water dispersible. Ppolysorbate 20 is a nonirritating, nonionic surfactant, meaning it has no electrical charge. A surfactant is a wetting agent that lowers the water surface tension permitting it to penetrate more easily.

Prunus dulcis (Sweet Almond Oil)
Sweet almond oil is pressed from almond kernels. The almond tree is cultivated in southern Europe, Mediterranean countries and California. It consists mainly of oleic acid (69%), essential unsaturated fatty acids (25%), sterolins (.5 to 1%) and vitamin E (about 10 IU per ounce). A light nearly odorless oil, sweet almond oil is said to have great nutritional value for all skin types. It has a similar make up to baby's sebum, the oil naturally produced by the skin to protect it and is easily absorbed. Sweet almond oil contains glucosides, minerals, and vitamins and is rich in protein. It was highly valued by the Egyptians for cosmetic purposes.

Retinol Palmitate (Vitamin A)
A form of vitamin A, retinol palmitate is a combination of retinol (pure vitamin A) and palmitic acid. Research shows retinol is effective as an antioxidant and skin-cell regulator. Retinol palmitate has been shown in UVB exposure studies to offer sun protection all by itself, and is a potent antioxidant. Vitamin A slows progression of wrinkles by encouraging healthy cell growth and skin exfoliation to help skin appear younger.

Rhassoul Clay
Rhassoul clay comes directly from Morocco and has been a sacred beauty ingredient used by women from North Africa, South Europe and Middle East for over 12 centuries. This clay is a miracle detoxifier for both the face and scalp. Rhassoul clay's most impressive properties in skin improvement are its capacity of absorption due to its high level of ion exchange. When applied to the face Rhassoul clay removes oil, dirt and pollutants from the skin that the ordinary cleanser cannot reach. When applied to the hair and scalp, it will cleanse, provide moisture, detangle and provide shine in ways that your ordinary shampoo simply can't. Clinical studies have been conducted by two different research laboratories in the United States (International Research Services, Inc. and Structure Probe, Inc. to evaluate Rhassoul clay mask on skin condition. The study results showed that a single use of our Rhassoul clay mask statistically: Reduces dryness (79%) Reduces flakiness (41%) Improves skin clarity (68%) Improves skin elasticity / firmness (24%) Improves skin texture (106%)

Rosa damascena (Rose) Distillate
Rose damascena hydrosol, also known as rosewater, has an extraordinary aroma that smells almost exactly like the aroma of fresh rose petals. It acts as a humectant and also helps to balance the skin. It can be used for all skin types, and helps to regulate sebum. Rosewater offers antibacterial properties that can be helpful in soothing acne. It is a good choice for anti-aging and anti-wrinkle formulations. It is also known for its ability to help cool sunburn.

Rosa mosqueta (Rosehip) Seed Oil
Rose hip seed oil is extracted from the ripened fruit of a hybrid, thorny, wild rosebush native to South American countries. This unique oil is extremely high in essential fatty acids and has been recognized by professional journals and organizations as being a great agent in the fight against dry, weathered, and dehydrated skin. It works wonders on scars and is the predominant oil used for helping to reduce wrinkles and premature aging. Rose hip seed oil is a rich source of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, is high in gamma linoliec acid (GLA) and vitamin C. It is often used in products made for stretch marks, burns, scars and mature dry skin. Rose hip seed oil is an emollient and strengthens the hair shaft. According to the AMA's committee on Coetaneous Health emollients do help make the skin feel softer and smoother, reduce roughness, cracking and irritation, and may possibly reduce the forming of wrinkles due to age.

Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) Oleoresin
Rosemary oleoresin contains antioxidants that are oil soluble. Its preservative value has made it common in herbal medicine. It is made of oil-soluble antioxidant compounds derived from the rosemary herb. As a natural preservative, it prevents rancidity in which vegetable/plant oils have been made. Before refrigeration was available, people wrapped their meat in rosemary leaves to preserve it. Meats spoil partly because oxidation turns the fats rancid and rosemary retards spoilage.

Rosmarinus officinalis (Spanish Rosemary) Essential Oil
Sometimes used as a preservative, the extract and oil of rosemary is strong and antibacterial. It is commonly used in products to help with oily and acneic skin, as well as in haircare products to promote a healthy scalp. Topical use includes help for rheumatism, arthritis, neuralgia, muscular complaints, wounds, dandruff, and hair loss. It helps reduce fragility of the skin, and boosts the skin in general with its great ability to increase circulation. Rosemary also contains antioxidants that have anti-aging properties and may reduce the damage caused by free radicals.

Salix nigra (Organic Black Willowbark) Extract
Fresh black willowbark is rich in tannins and salicylic acid-like materials. The freshly prepared extract has been reported to have analgesic, antiseptic, astringent, anti-itch and anti-inflammatory properties. It has been shown through testing to offer potent antimicrobial properties. Efficacy testing has shown that the extract has activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Propionibacterium acnes, two of the skin flora implicated in the formation of acne. When added to cosmetic formulations, the extract can also increase cell renewal capabilities of cosmetic formulations.

Salvia sclarea (French Clary Sage) Essential Oil
Salvia sclarea has a beautiful earthy and herbaceous scent with a hint of floral. The soothing qualities make clary sage useful for skin inflammations. Aromatherapy of clary sage calms and balances the spirit and brings on a feeling of tranquility. It also helps relieve stress, anxiety, and depression. Clary sage oil is especially good for female ailments including menstrual cramps, PMS, and menopausal hot flashes. Clary sage oil aromatherapy should not be used when pregnant. Do not use with alcohol or if you suffer from estrogen-related disorders.

Sesamum indicum (Refined Sesame) Oil
Made from edible sesame seeds in east India, sesame oil has been traditionally used in Ayurveda to help calm the body and soften the skin. It contains natural antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, proteins, lecithin and amino acids. Sesame oil is high in unsaponifiables, which is a large group of compounds called plant steroids or sterolins. This offers a superior moisturizing effect on the upper layer of the skin and helps to reduce scarring.

Simmondsia chinensis (Jojoba) Oil
Pronounced Ho Ho Ba, Simmondsia chinensis is technically not an oil, but a liquid wax ester with a long unsaturated carbon chains. It resembles human sebum; the natural coating our body produces to protect the skin and keeps it supple. Jojoba is skin therapy; our skin loses sebum with age, sun, wind, cold, and the environment. It contains protein, minerals and a waxy substance that mimics collagen. Jojoba is perfect for any skin type because of its large molecular structure, and can help with dry or oily skin. If your skin has an over production of sebum jojoba oil will dissolve clogged pores and restore the skin to its natural pH balance. The reason jojoba oil works so well is because the skin accepts the oil as sebum, allowing it to penetrate the skin. Jojoba oil is cold pressed from the nuts of the jojoba tree, which are cultivated in California, Arizona, Mexico and Israel. Native Americans have been using jojoba for centuries, and the first record of jojoba is from 1701, and was traditionally used to soothe sores, cuts, and burns, and as a conditioner and for all over skin and hair treatments.

Sorbic Acid
Sorbic acid is a natural organic compound used as a food preservative. It is a colorless solid that is slightly soluble in water and sublimes readily. It was first isolated from the unripe berries tree. In cosmetics and personal care products, sorbic acid is used primarily in the formulation of facial and eye makeup and skin care and hair products.

Stelaria media (Wild Harvested Chickweed) Oil
Chickweed, a naturally-found “drawing herb,” once said to remove toxins from the skin, has now more typically been explained as a microcirculatory stimulate for skin. It may be used to soothe acne, abscesses of the skin, and eczema, abscesses, skin irritations and rashes. Chickweed contains saponins, which exert an anti-inflammatory action similar to cortisone. Modern uses include it in a variety of salves and ointments to help with all types of skin conditions including psoriasis, eczema, and even minor burns.

Symphytum officinale (Organic Comfrey) Oil
Comfrey oil is made from certified organic comfrey roots and leaves, which encourage healthy and faster re-growth of damaged tissues. It is one of the most useful and valuable plants in cosmetics and medicine. The primary compound mucilage and allantoin present in it are responsible for accelerating tissue healing and closing of wounds. Comfrey root oil can be mixed with olive oil to soothe spider bites. It can be directly applied on skin for speedy recovery from shallow wounds, scratches and diaper rash. Not to be used on dirty or open wounds.

Tetrasodium EDTA
Tetrasodium EDTA is derived from sodium salts. and is used as a chelating agent. The Greek root of the word chelate is “chele” which means “to claw.” EDTA claws or binds minerals that enable the growth of mold. For example, EDTA binds up magnesium, which is necessary for mold to grow. In cosmetics, EDTA not only is a great additive to create a stable product, but it also pulls heavy metals from your skin when you apply the cosmetic. EDTA is widely used for chelation therapy, which is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a treatment for lead and heavy metal poisoning, and an estimated one million people in America use chelation therapy for this purpose. The NIH National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) is currently funding a study to prove the effectiveness of EDTA chelation therapy for heart disease. EDTA is also used in many foods, for instance mayonnaise and soft drinks, which include ascorbic and sodium benzoate to reduce the formation of benzene (a carcinogen).

Triethanolamine (TEA)
Triethanolamine is used as a pH balancer in cosmetic preparations in a variety of different products ranging from skin lotion, eye gels, moisturizers, shampoos, shaving foams, etc.

Triticum vulgare (Wheat Germ) Oil
Wheat germ oil is from the golden germ of the wheat. It is extremely high in vitamin’s A, B1, D, lecithin, protein, a high content of unsaturated fatty acid compounds and a very high vitamin E content at 250 IU per ounce. Wheat germ oil has a heavy wheat nut scent, and is a very emollient oil that needs to be blended with other oils to overcome its extremely sticky texture. Emollients help to make the skin feel softer and smoother, reduce roughness, cracking and irritation, and may possibly slow down the growth of fine wrinkles due to aging.

Vegetable Glycerin
Vegetable glycerin is obtained by adding alkalies to fats and fixed oils. Glycerin is a soothing, humectant that draws moisture from the air to the skin. It is an emollient, which makes the skin feel softer and smoother, reduce roughness, cracking and irritation. Glycerin has a high hydrophilic (water) factor and a low lipophilic (fat) factor. It is non-toxic, non-irritating and non-allergenic. Vegetable glycerin
is a sweet syrup, about 0.6 as sweet as sugar. 

White Kaolin Clay
Originally coming from the Kaoling Hill in Kiangsi Providence in China, kaolin clay is a white powder insoluble in water and absorbent. It absorbs oils secreted from the skin, and is used to draw our impurities and toxins through absorption. It is great for insect bites and stings. Kaolin clay is composed of silica, iron, magnesium, calcium, sodium, zinc and other minerals. It removes old sebum that is clogged in pores, and environmental poisons left of the skin. Kaolin clay has electromagnetic qualities and attracts oils and particles left on the skin.

Xanthan Gum (Polysaccharide Gum)
Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide (natural sugar) fermented from corn sugar. Often used in the food industry to thicken and stabilize products. It can be added to thicken a cosmetic product.

Zinziber officinale (Madagascar Ginger) Essential Oil
Ginger oil is effective at relieving menstrual cramps and easing the symptoms of motion sickness and jet lag. Ginger oil is believed to aid in boosting the immune system and is used to ward off cold and flu symptoms. It is also thought to be effective at treating respiratory infections and is used to ease sore throats.



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